„Überschneidungen zwischen Asylprozess und Bildungsbiographien berücksichtigen“

Annette Korntheuer, Copyright: Benjamin Storck

Dr.in Annette Korntheuer ist Bildungs- und Fluchtforscherin und promovierte an der LMU München zur Bildungsteilhabe junger Geflüchteter in Kanada und Deutschland. Sie engagiert sich in der Canadian German Research Coalition, der Act NOW Initiative sowie als Vorständin im Netzwerk Flüchtlingsforschung. Zudem ist Annette Korntheuer Bildungskoordinatorin für Neuzugewanderte der Landeshauptstadt München. Im Interview erzählt sie, wieso die SchlaU-Schule als Good-Practice-Beispiel eingeordnet werden kann und welche Rahmenbedingungen notwendig sind, damit Geflüchtete im Regelschulsystem erfolgreich sein können.

Die SchlaU-Schule bietet Unterricht für Geflüchtete und Migrant*innen an. Sie plädieren als Bildungsforscherin für mehr Heterogenität in den Schulen. Wieso würden Sie die SchlaU-Schule trotz der Segregation als Good-Practice-Beispiel bezeichnen?

Die SchlaU-Schule ist ein Vorreiter in der fluchtsensiblen Bildungsarbeit und hat sowohl für die Stadt München als auch bayern- und bundesweit wichtige Impulse im Bildungsbereich gesetzt. Natürlich kann man kritisieren, dass es ein spezifisches Bildungsangebot für Geflüchtete ist. Man muss aber abwägen, ob die Vorteile der Spezialisierung oder die Nachteile der Segregation überwiegen. Im Falle der SchlaU-Schule überwiegen meiner Meinung nach die Vorteile, da sich die Schule sehr an der Lebenswelt der Jugendlichen orientiert. Es ist wichtig, auf die Überschneidungen zwischen Asylprozess und Bildungsbiographien Rücksicht zu nehmen. Durch den Asylprozess sind junge Geflüchtete stärker belastet, sie können vielleicht nicht immer da sein oder in der Nacht nicht schlafen. Wenn das in der Schule nicht beachtet wird, haben die Jugendlichen wenig Chancen auf Bildungserfolge. Im Rahmen einer Vergleichsstudie zu Bildungsbiographien in Kanada und Deutschland habe ich auch mit Schüler*innen aus der SchlaU-Schule gesprochen, die mir davon erzählten, dass sie ernst genommen und unterstützt werden, dass es immer jemanden gibt, der an sie glaubt. Um das zu vermitteln, braucht es auch die Nähe zwischen Lehrerinnen und Lehrern, Sozialpädagoginnen und Sozialpädagogen und den Schülerinnen und Schülern. Das klappt natürlich in spezialisierten Angeboten besser als im Regelsystem. Das heißt, die SchlaU-Schule ist wichtig und macht sehr gute Arbeit. Diese diversitäts- und fluchtsensiblen Ansätze müssen aber gleichzeitig in das Regelsystem hineinfließen

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. Das wird in der SchlaU-Werkstatt versucht, indem fluchtsensible Bildungsarbeit verbreitet und didaktische Materialien weiterentwickelt werden.

In der SchlaU-Schule gibt es auch eine Förderklasse. Können Sie auf die Bedürfnisse und Herausforderungen speziell für Geflüchtete mit Lernbehinderungen eingehen?

Menschen mit Behinderung, die auch noch Zweitsprachen-Lerner sind, haben ganz besondere Herausforderungen. Derzeit scheinen der Migrationsbereich und die Unterstützung von Menschen mit Behinderung zwei Säulen zu sein, die nichts miteinander zu tun haben. Da müssen mehr Brücken geschlagen werden. Einerseits muss in der Migrations-Arbeit überlegt werden, wie Sprachkurse für Menschen mit Behinderung aussehen können, und andererseits müssen sich Sondersysteme für Menschen mit Behinderung interkulturell öffnen. Hinzu kommt, dass man bei jungen Geflüchteten, die eine Lernbehinderung oder eine kognitive Einschränkung haben, oftmals nicht weiß, woran das liegt. Das können Traumatisierungen sein, die diese kognitiven Prozesse im Moment beeinträchtigen, sie können aber auch eine Lernbehinderung haben, die bis dato noch niemand festgestellt hat. Die Diagnostik ist noch nicht soweit, das kultursensibel und sprachfrei festzustellen. Insofern würde ich dafür plädieren, dass man einfach Unterstützung zuschaltet – unabhängig von der Ursache.

Und mit welchen allgemeinen Problemen und Herausforderungen sind geflüchtete Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene, aber auch Migrant*innen im Bildungsbereich konfrontiert?

Ein großes Problem ist, dass es für junge Geflüchtete, die schon 15 oder 16 Jahre alt sind, gar kein Regelsystem gibt. In Bayern gibt es zwar die Berufsintegrationsklassen und auch bundesweit gibt es ähnliche Modelle, in denen Geflüchtete und Migrant*innen beschult werden. Diese sind jedoch stark auf die berufliche Ausbildung fokussiert und nicht so sehr auf höhere Schulabschlüsse. Das finde ich höchstproblematisch, weil es sehr wohl junge Geflüchtete und Migrant*innen gibt, die mit guten Bildungsvoraussetzungen kommen oder die sehr motiviert sind und in höhere Abschlüsse hinein möchten. In Bayern kommt noch dazu, dass aus aufenthaltsrechtlichen Gründen nicht für alle Geflüchtete Ausbildungserlaubnisse erteilt werden. Es ist noch nicht zu einer gelungenen Umsetzung der 3+2 Regelung gekommen. Die Folge ist, dass speziell junge Geflüchtete sehr viel Kraft und Motivation in ihre Schulbildung investieren und am Ende dieser Schulbildung vor dem Nichts stehen, weil sie in keine Ausbildung kommen. Ein weiterer Punkt ist, dass der Kontakt zur Mehrheitsgesellschaft gestärkt werden muss. Nicht nur segregierte Schulen, sondern auch die Unterkünfte, in denen viele Geflüchtete leben, führen dazu, dass diese Jugendliche kaum Kontakt zur Mehrheitsgesellschaft haben.

Welche Rahmenbedingungen müssen geschaffen werden, damit Geflüchtete im Regelschulsystem erfolgreich sein können?

Zentral – und zwar nicht nur für Geflüchtete, sondern für unsere diverse Gesellschaft – ist, dass es eine gute Diversity-Orientierung braucht. Da gehört sehr viel dazu. Das ist erstmal eine grundsätzliche Haltung: Wie können wir Regelsysteme für eine diverse Schülerschaft fit machen? Welche gezielten Unterstützungssysteme braucht es für einzelne Gruppen? Sehr gewinnbringend ist zudem, dass die Menschen direkt mitwirken und gestalten können – also im Sinne von Schülermitverwaltung, aber auch durch das Einbeziehen von Migrant*innen-Selbstorganisationen. Dadurch werden Migrant*innen als Expert*innen angesprochen und sie können aus ihrer Perspektive Strukturen verändern. In Bayern ist außerdem die sehr frühe Trennung nach Leistung problematisch. Das ist vor allem für Kinder und Jugendliche ein Problem, die Deutsch als Zweitsprache sprechen, aber auch für die Kinder und Jugendlichen aus sozial schwierigen Familien. Würde man diese frühe Trennung nach hinten schieben, haben Kinder und Jugendliche – egal ob mit oder ohne Migrationshintergrund – bessere Chancen. Ein großer Gewinn wäre auch, Ganztagsangebote auszubauen, damit man mehr Schulzeit zur Verfügung hat und mehr auf Individuen eingehen kann. Das würde auch Raum bieten, um interdisziplinäre Teams in den Schulen stärker aufzubauen, um so ein ganzheitlicher Bildungsort zu werden.